Mayoral Election Issues: Public Transport

Taxi Bus Tube-2-1London has 19,000 bus stops, 270 Underground stations, 83 Overground stations and 45 DLR stations.  So you’d think that public transport would be pretty convenient for people right across the city. Well, not necessarily.

For inner city dwellers public transport is the obvious way to get around.  The best access to public transport, measured by Transport for London[1], is for the residents of the City of London.  But all the outer London boroughs score below average.

Urbs has mapped the TfL index which measures access to public transport across the city to show the borough variations.  Predictably, those in central London have the easiest access.  The average score on the index for the whole of London is 3.8. In the City of London it is 7.9 and in Westminster 6.5.  The poorest scores are on the eastern and western edges of the capital, in Havering and Hillingdon.

Public Transport Map 1-2

The index measures the number, reliability, waiting times and walking distances for public transport in a neighbourhood.  It does not take account of the speed, ease of connections or number of people using a service.  The index uses 9 level of public transport access.  All the residents of the City of London are in the top 2 levels. More than half the residents of Hillingdon are in the bottom 3.  The worst place in Hillingdon for public transport access is Harefield ward, home to the eponymous hospital.  All 7,399 residents of the ward fall into the bottom 3 levels for public transport access.

The outer areas of London that have low scores for public transport access have the highest level of car ownership. There are 2.71 million cars and light goods vehicles in London[2].  Ownership is low in inner London areas and highest in Havering and Hillingdon with 49 cars per 100 people.

Public Transport Map 2-2

Car ownership has gone up a little in the past 12 months but the trend over the past 5 years has been down.  Over the same period there has been a big jump in the use of public transport, growing at twice the rate of population growth[3].  In the past 5 years the number of journeys taken on the Transport for London system of Tube, train, tram and bus has gone up by 14% while the population has risen by half that rate.

The number of people in inner London, who may be more reliant on public transport, has grown slightly faster than the rate for the capital as a whole, but the data underlines that the greater use of the transport network is linked not just to population but to economic factors.

The greatest growth in passenger numbers is on the Tube with a 24% increase in journeys between the financial year 2010/11 and the most recent 12 months. Bus journeys rose by 3% over the same period. But the bus is still the most popular form of transport. Latest data from TfL shows that in the last 12 months buses carried 2.4 billion people while 1.4 billion Tube journeys were recorded.

Public transport chart 3-2

So are the growing number of passengers taking growing numbers of journeys getting good value?  On price alone, the answer seems to be no.

The financial services firm UBS conducts an annual survey of prices and earnings across cities around the globe[4]. In its most recent survey it judged London to be the third most expensive for public transport out of 71 cities. Only Copenhagen and Stockholm were more expensive.

UBS focused on single ticket prices on a bus, tram or underground system travelling 10 stops or 10 kilometres for its comparison.

We have made a more like-for-like analysis looking at pricing on the underground systems in London, New York and Paris using multi-journey tickets that locals would use.

A journey on the Tube in zones 1-3 costs £2.80 on an Oyster/contactless fare. A subway journey in New York using its Metrocard costs $2.75 (£1.94) and a single journey on the Paris Metro costs €1.44 (£1.15) using a Carnet.

Zac Goldsmith has promised to increase the network capacity and deliver the Night Tube plan. Sadiq Khan has promised to freeze fares for four years.  Neither candidate is likely to argue that it is a simple either/or between better or cheaper, but the messages they have sent so far certainly sets up an interesting question about what really concerns Londoners most about their public transport system.

[1] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/public-transport-accessibility-levels

[2] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/licensed-vehicles-type-0

[3] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/public-transport-journeys-type-transport/resource/a7a69c22-150c-49f3-a1fd-90d4c24d98d4

[4] https://www.ubs.com/microsites/prices-earnings/open-data.html

This report was produced in association with London Live’s election special programme London Votes.

All aboard! Big growth in public transport use in past 5 years

tube commutersThe public transport network across the capital is seeing a rise in passengers at twice the rate of population growth.  In the past 5 years the number of journeys taken on the Transport for London system of Tube, train, tram and bus has gone up by 14% while the population has risen by half that rate to break the 8.6 million mark.

The number of people in inner London, who may be more reliant on public transport,  has grown slightly faster than the rate for the capital as a whole, but the data underlines that the greater use of the transport network is linked not just to population but to economic factors.

The greatest growth in passenger numbers is on the Tube with 20% increase in journeys between the financial year 2010/11 and the most recent 12 months. Bus journeys rose by 5% rise over the same period. But the bus is still the most popular form of transport. Latest data from TfL shows that in the last 12 months buses carried 2.4 billion people while 1.3 billion Tube journeys were recorded.

TFL growth all

The Docklands Light Railway (DLR), London Overground trains and the trams service make up just 5% of the journeys over the 5 years. But the growth in the DLR over that period has been strong as an improving economy has brought more jobs and homes along its routes.

TFL growth DLR

The biggest growth is in London Overground, the orbital train network around the capital. Passenger journeys have increased by 81% over 5 years but this is not a like for like comparison as the network has expanded during the period. The link between Clapham Junction and Surrey Quays was opened at the end of 2012 and the network recently added more lines including Liverpool Street to Enfield, Cheshunt and Chingford.

The only mode of transport that has seen a decline is the tram. Passenger journeys are down in recent months, but this may be related to station development work at Wimbledon which means the service is currently not running to this main connection point with the train and Tube network.

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

London leads the way in declining car use but the East is bucking the trend

Thousands forced to stand as train overcrowding worsens

Crime down nearly a third in 5 years on buses, Tube and trains

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tube Delays: Waterloo and City Line

Tube stationThe Waterloo and City Line connects Waterloo railway station with Bank in the City of London. With two stations and no stops in between, it is the most efficient line on the network in terms of time lost through disruption.

Transport for London measures delays in what it calls Lost Customer Hours (LCH). These are calculated by multiplying the delays in minutes by the number of passengers. TfL records all delays over 2 minutes. It uses the financial year from April to March and splits the year in 13 equal periods for performance measurement.

Data in the London Underground Performance Almanac for the last full year shows there was an average of 12,314 Lost Customer Hours per period on the Waterloo and City Line. This is the best performance on the network.

LCH Waterloo City

As the chart shows, with few other issues to contend with, isolated strike action is responsible for a very high proportion of the lost hours.

The Waterloo and City Line is the shortest line travelling 1.47 miles in 4 minutes. It carries fewer passengers than any other Tube line. It was known by its passengers as “The Drain”, possible due to the seepage of water into the tunnels.

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

Strikes are a commuting disaster, but what delays your daily Tube journey?

Passenger data reveals busiest stations where Tube strike will hit hardest

Tube Delays: Victoria Line

Tube mapPassengers are the main cause of delays on the Victoria Line. Members of the public were behind 35% of the time lost to disruption on the line in 2014/15. That’s double the rate for any other line.

Delays caused by what TfL calls “customers and public action” include commuters taking ill, items dropped on the track and people jumping in front of trains. Documents published by TfL reveal that more than 20 people a year kill themselves on the Underground.

Transport for London measures delays in what it calls Lost Customer Hours (LCH). These are calculated by multiplying the delays in minutes by the number of passengers. TfL records all delays over 2 minutes. It uses the financial year from April to March and splits the year in 13 equal periods for performance measurement.

Data in the London Underground Performance Almanac for the last full year shows there was an average of 129,010 Lost Customer Hours per period on the Victoria Line. This makes it one of the better performers.

LCH Victoria

The Victoria Line was the first to introduce automated operations where the train is controlled by computer overseen by a driver. These types of automated systems are also in use on the Central and Jubilee lines but only on the Victoria Line do they feature as a significant cause of Lost Customer Hours. They were blamed for 13% of the delays last year on this line.

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

Strikes are a commuting disaster, but what delays your daily Tube journey?

Passenger data reveals busiest stations where Tube strike will hit hardest

 

Tube Delays: Piccadilly Line

Tube escalatorSignal problems are the biggest cause of disruption on the Piccadilly line.

Staff issues, including industrial action and problems with the train fleet are the other significant issues.

Delays are measured by what TfL call Lost Customer Hours (LCH). These are calculated by multiplying the delays in minutes by the number of passengers. TfL records all delays over 2 minutes. It uses the financial year from April to March and splits the year in 13 equal periods for performance measurement.

 

Data in the London Underground Performance Almanac for the last full year shows there was an average of 205,014 Lost Customer Hours per period on the Piccadilly Line.

LCH Piccadilly

The Piccadilly ranks in 4th place for the worst record on the network, but it has improved considerably in the past 10 years. It has reduced Lost Customer Hours by 69% in the pas 3 years compared to 2003/06.

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

Strikes are a commuting disaster, but what delays your daily Tube journey?

Passenger data reveals busiest stations where Tube strike will hit hardest

Tube Delays: Northern Line

commuters tube escalatorThe Northern Line, formerly known as the misery line, has seen the best rate of improvement over the past decade in reducing the level of delays.

Transport for London measures delays in what it calls Lost Customer Hours (LCH). These are calculated by multiplying the delays in minutes by the number of passengers. TfL records all delays over 2 minutes. It uses the financial year from April to March and splits the year in 13 equal periods for performance measurement.

Data in the London Underground Performance Almanac for the last full year shows there was an average of 139,252 Lost Customer Hours per period on the Northern line.

LCH NOrthern

Comparing its recent performance with the average for 2003/06 shows a reduction in LCH of 76%, the best record on the network.

The line has one of the highest proportions of disruption caused by passengers. This accounted for 27% of the delays in 2014/15 compared to 17% across the network.

Delays caused by what TfL calls “customers and public action” include commuters taking ill, items dropped on the track and people jumping in front of trains. Documents from TfL show that more than 20 people a year kill themselves on the Underground.

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

Strikes are a commuting disaster, but what delays your daily Tube journey?

Passenger data reveals busiest stations where Tube strike will hit hardest

 

Tube Delays: Metropolitan Line

Oyster Reader Tom Page Wikimedia commonsThe Metropolitan Line is the oldest on the Tube network and the oldest underground line in the world, starting life in 1863 as the Metropolitan Railway running between Paddington and Farringdon.

Despite its age it has one of the lowest levels of delays on the network. Signal failure is the main cause of lost time, accounting for 23% of delays, compared to a network average of 14%.

Transport for London measures delays in what it calls Lost Customer Hours (LCH). These are calculated by multiplying the delays in minutes by the number of passengers. TfL records all delays over 2 minutes. It uses the financial year from April to March and splits the year in 13 equal periods for performance measurement.

Data in the London Underground Performance Almanac for the last full year shows there was an average of 94,441 Lost Customer Hours per period on the Metropolitan line.

LCH Metropol

Along with the District, Circle, and Hammersmith and City lines a modernisation project is about to get underway on the Metropolitan including up dates to the signals system, which TfL admits “belongs in a museum” although still functions safely.

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

Strikes are a commuting disaster, but what delays your daily Tube journey?

Passenger data reveals busiest stations where Tube strike will hit hardest

Tube Delays: Jubilee Line

Tube stationThe Jubilee is the newest Tube line but it faces an age-old problem for every urban underground – delays caused by its passengers. This was the single biggest factor in 2014/15 causing 22% of time lost compared to 17% for the whole network.

Delays caused by what TfL calls “customers and public action” include commuters taking ill, items dropped on the track and people jumping in front of trains. The grim “person under a train…” message is familiar and more than 20 people a year kill themselves on the Underground.

Transport for London measures delays in what it calls Lost Customer Hours (LCH). These are calculated by multiplying the delays in minutes by the number of passengers. TfL records all delays over 2 minutes. It uses the financial year from April to March and splits the year in 13 equal periods for performance measurement.

Data in the London Underground Performance Almanac for the last full year shows there was an average of 292,033 Lost Customer Hours per period on the Jubilee line. This makes it the second highest on the network after the Central line.

LCH Jubilee

While the Jubilee line has seen an improvement over the past 10 years in Lost Customer Hours the numbers rose slightly at the start of 2015/16 year in April.

The Jubilee line is the only line to see “stations” listed as a significant source of delay. Although the line was opened as recently as 1979 a number of its stations date back 100 years and were used by other lines originally. The line was extended in the 1990s though the Docklands to Stratford.

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

Strikes are a commuting disaster, but what delays your daily Tube journey?

Passenger data reveals busiest stations where Tube strike will hit hardest

 

Tube Delays: District Line

Girl's boots-2Signal failure is the biggest single factor that caused delays on the District Line in 2014/15, which will come as little surprise to its passengers.  35% of the time lost though delays was caused by signal problems compared to just 14% for the whole Tube network

Transport for London measures delays in what it calls Lost Customer Hours (LCH). These are calculated by multiplying the delays in minutes by the number of passengers. TfL records all delays over 2 minutes. It uses the financial year from April to March and splits the year in 13 equal periods for performance measurement.

Data in the London Underground Performance Almanac for the last full year shows there was an average of 222,088 Lost Customer Hours per period on the line. This makes it the third highest on the network.

LCH District-2

Over the past 10 years as Lost Customer Hours have been reduced across the network the District line has reduced LCH by 57% comparing the average for 2003/06 with 2012/15.

TfL’s next round of modernisation work will target 3 of the oldest tube lines, including the District line, to upgrade a signaling system that the company says “belongs in a museum, having been operating safely, but in a very basic way, since the early years of the last century.”

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

Strikes are a commuting disaster, but what delays your daily Tube journey?

Passenger data reveals busiest stations where Tube strike will hit hardest

Tube Delays: Circle/Hammersmith and City Lines

tube train interiorStaff issues accounted for nearly 40% of the delays on the Circle and Hammersmith and City Lines in 2014/15. About half of this was simply staff absence and shortages.

As with other lines, signals failures, train fleet problems and action by customers were the big factors.

Transport for London measures delays in what it calls Lost Customer Hours (LCH). These are calculated by multiplying the delays in minutes by the number of passengers. TfL records all delays over 2 minutes. It uses the financial year from April to March and splits the year in 13 equal periods for performance measurement.

Data in the London Underground Performance Almanac for the last full year shows there was an average of 165,973 Lost Customer Hours per period on the lines. This makes it middle ranking in terms of performance across the network.

LCH Circle Hamm

Over the past 10 years as Lost Customer Hours have been reduced across the network the Circle and Hammersmith and City lines have shown one of the biggest improvements with a 63% reduction in LCH comparing the average for 2003/06 with 2012/15

Since 2009 the Circle and the Hammersmith and City line have operated as a end-to-end service, perhaps more a spiral than a circle running from Hammersmith to Edgware Road via Aldgate.

Source data

See also

Central Line leads the lost hours league table of your Tube delays

Strikes are a commuting disaster, but what delays your daily Tube journey?

Passenger data reveals busiest stations where Tube strike will hit hardest