Borough Profile: Kensington and Chelsea 

People

There are 158,447 people living in Kensington and Chelsea, that’s 1.8% of the 8.6 million Londoners.

The average age of the population is 39.1 years old, that’s 3.2 years older than the London average. The under 16s in the borough outnumber the over 65s. Children and young people under 16 make up 16% of the population compared to 14% for the over 65s.

People who are black, Asian or of minority ethnic origin, BAME, represent 30% of the residents. 55% of the people living in Kensington and Chelsea were born abroad. The largest migrant group according to the last census is from United States and makes up 5% of the population. The second largest group, based on the census is from France. More recently the largest number of migrants have come from Italy and France.

Housing

The median house price in the borough is £1,195,000, the highest in London.   Those who rent outnumber owner occupiers with 23% owning their home outright and a further 15% with a mortgage compared to 33% who rent privately and a further 29% living in social housing rented from the council or a housing association.

The council tax on a Band D property (the mid-tier cost in most local authorities) is £1,078.

Crime

The crime rate in Kensington and Chelsea is 121 crimes per 1,000 residents, which is among the highest in the capital.

The Area

Kensington and Chelsea covers an area of 1,212 and is the smallest borough, not counting the City of London. The largest is Bromley, which is more than 15,000 hectares.

Some 15% of the area is classified as green space. The average for London is 38%.

Work

The employment rate in the Kensington and Chelsea is below the national average with 68% of people in work. The median annual salary for men is £0 and for women it is lower at £0.  The median income for a household in the borough is £116,350.

The workforce is among the highest qualified in London with 65% of workers who are educated to degree level or above. 5% have no qualifications and 4% of young people under 25 are listed as NEETS (that’s not in education, employment or training).

Transport

There are 44,536 cars in the borough, which equates to 0.6 cars per household.  Kensington and Chelsea is rated as above average for public transport, based on an index compiled by Transport for London. According to Government data on physical activity, 16.2% of people cycle each month.

Health and Well-being

Men living in Kensington and Chelsea can expect to live until they are 83, for women life expectancy is 86 years. The borough has a death rate from what are considered to be preventable causes of 136.3 per 100,000 people. The national rate for England is 182.

Other health indicators show that 4% of people over 17 suffer from diabetes and 22% of children are classified as obese.

When asked in a Government survey to rate their satisfaction with life the average score of people in the borough was 7.6 out of 10, which is above average for London.

See other borough profiles

Source Data

 

Growing diabetes problem in Kensington and Chelsea will place strain on NHS

Kensington and Chelsea will be home to an additional 3,063 diabetes sufferers in the next 20 years, placing huge pressure on local health services, according to Public Health England.

There are currently 11,199 people with diabetes in the area, up by 162 on last year. That’s 8.5% of all the people living in Kensington and Chelsea , which is below the national rate of 8.6%. But forecasts by PHE, a government agency, show that by 2020 the rate will have gone up to 8.8% and in 2035 will hit 10%.

Diabetes 2035

The agency based its predictions on health surveys carried out over three years and focused on people over the age of 16. PHE says that around 90% of the new cases will be Type 2 diabetes, which is caused by lifestyle factors and linked to obesity. It says these cases are preventable and tackling the problem is fundamental to the future of the health service.

The increased prevalence of the condition coincides with a rise in the population of the capital in the coming decades. There will be 895,489 diabetes sufferers in London’s 33 boroughs by 2035, and 1.6% of them will live in Kensington and Chelsea .

Diabetes is caused by the inability of the body to regulate the amount of sugar in the blood. It is associated with an increased risk of stroke and heart attack. Sufferers may also develop kidney disease and foot ulcers, which can lead to amputation.

Source data

More diabetes stories

 

Smoking on the rise in six boroughs but the city is stubbing out the habit

Smoking-2Against the general trend of both the city and the country, smoking has increased in six boroughs since 2012.

The latest data gathered by the Office for National Statistics through its large-scale Annual Population Survey reveals that the rate of smoking in 2015 compared to 2012 was up in Harrow, Haringey, Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston, Newham and Tower Hamlets.

The biggest increase, of nearly 14%, was in Harrow, but the overall level of smoking remains low in the borough. Haringey, Newham and Tower Hamlets experienced an increase on rates that are among the highest in London.

smoking change 12-15-2

Although the increases are mostly small they are significant in the context of falling rates across the rest of the capital.  The average rate for London has gone down from 18.2% who said they were smokers in 2012 to 16.3% in 2015.  In Redbridge the rate fell by more than 30% over that period, according to the ONS figures. There were also steep declines in Brent and Bromley.

The data does not reveal the reason behind these changes.  It may be the consequence of changing habits or changes in the make up of the population in areas. It may be due to people aswering questions more honestly, as the survey relies on individuals to define themselves as smokers.

The rate of smoking in London is among the lowest for any region in England.  Across England 16.9% of people say that they are smokers. The rate is lower than that in 20 London boroughs.  The lowest rate in London is 11.5% in Redbridge, but it is nearly double that in Haringey where 22% of people said they smoked in 2015.  In five boroughs – Haringey, Lambeth, Hackney, Tower Hamlets and Newham –  two or more in every ten people smoke.

Smoking rates-2

Apart from Redbridge, Richmond, Brent and Bromley all have a rate of smoking at around 12% or lower.

There are a number of measures of smoking carried out across the country.  A survey at GP surgeries of people over 15 carried out over two year periods found the level of smoking in London fractionally higher in 2014/15 than the most recent ONS data, It also recorded small rises in a handful of boroughs.

Source data

See Also

Police taking a relaxed approach to ban on smoking in cars

Low birth weight babies in Tower Hamlets 60% above London average

Teenage survey finds that Richmond has highest level of cannabis use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mayoral Election Issues: The Housing Shortage

roofer colourThe population is 8.6 million and the city is struggling with a shortage of housing.  Sounds familiar?  While this describes London today it also portrays the capital in the late 1930s.

After a post-war decline, the population has just got back to the 30s peak and a housing crisis has come back too.  So what has happened to house building in the intervening years? How did London find itself with a similar problem?

First, a bit of urban history. The shape of the capital has changed. In 1939 far more people lived in central London – 4.4 million lived in inner boroughs while 4.1 lived in outer ones[1].  The most highly populated areas were Southwark, Tower Hamlets and Lambeth, and can be seen as the darker areas on the map.

House bulding map 1-2

By 2015, the population of inner boroughs had fallen by 1 million while the outer boroughs have swelled by 24% to 5.1 million.  The most highly populated areas today are Barnet, Croydon and Ealing.

House building map 2-2

This switch in population from inner to outer came about because of house building.  The population surge of the 30s was met with a surge in building, and most of it took place in outer areas[2].

House building chart 3-2

This lure of new housing in the suburbs and the loss of central London housing in the Blitz helped reshape the capital.

In the last decade fewer homes were built than in the 1960s and 70s, when the population was shrinking. House-building has failed to keep pace with the population.

Since 2002 London has seen a 21% increase in jobs and a 16% rise in population. Over the same period new homes have increased by 11%[3].

House building chart 4-2

The 11% figure disguises a stark difference between inner and outer boroughs and where those homes have been built. Data from the Department for Communities and Local Government shows that there has been a 37% increase in the number of homes in Tower Hamlets since 2001 and a 20% increase in Islington. But in the same period the growth rate in dwellings in 16 outer boroughs has been in single figures – with just 4% in Sutton and 2% in Merton.

house buidling map 5-2

This pattern of growth is a reversal of what happened through most of the 20th century when more than half of the new housing stock was provided in the outer boroughs.

This growth in inner areas is not uniform however. 28% of the housing stock in Tower Hamlets was built this century, the highest proportion anywhere in the UK. It has the space through the redevelopment of areas like Canary Wharf and Limehouse.  Kensington and Chelsea in contrast has seen a 2% growth in homes due to the lack of brownfield sites.

The building in inner London means these areas are becoming more densely packed. Housing density is measured in dwellings per hectare. The average for England as a whole is 1.8. The average rate for London is 21.5[4]. For Inner London it is more than double that again at 44.6. And for Kensington and Chelsea, the borough with London’s highest, it is 69.1 dwelling per hectare.  The lowest density is Havering with 8.7 dwellings per hectare.  Havering is 10 times larger than Kensington and Chelsea. If it were to have the same dwelling density as the Royal borough it would have nearly 800,000 homes not the 100,000 it has currently.

As in the 1930s, the location of home building is pulling the population.  The biggest rate of growth in the past 12 months is in the City of London, but the numbers are small. After that it is Tower Hamlets where there has been at a 2.3% rise in residents in a year.

The GLA’s forecast for the next 25 years[5] shows that Tower Hamlets will lead the growth in residents, closely followed by Newham as many head east in search of a home.

House buidling map 6-2

But can building keep pace with demand?   New home starts are climbing back towards where they were 10 years ago, but it is still not enough and the problem is widely acknowledged. In his housing strategy document last year[6], the outgoing Mayor, Boris Johnson, said that housing was an “epic challenge” and that the number of new homes being built in the capital would need to double to 42,000 per year for the next 20 years to keep pace with population growth.

House building in the capital has been bumping along at around the 20,000 level for the past 10 years[7]. Following the financial crisis of 2008 it dipped sharply.

House building chart 7-2

Most of the homes being built are in the private sector, not social housing, which raises issues about affordability. Even in the ‘affordable’ sector a shift has taken place.

More affordable housing was delivered in London in the 2014-15 financial year than for any period dating back to 1991[8]. 17,913 homes were built or acquired and made available (so not counted in the new starts chart above) in the affordable rented sector, according to data from the Department for Communities and Local Government, and the GLA.

Affordable rents were previously available through what was termed social housing. This is rented property provided by a council or a housing association with long, secure tenancies and rents at around 50% of the market rates.

Housing associations also provided Intermediate rental.  This gives a tenant a subsidised rent, usually around 60% of the market rate, while they save for a deposit to buy the property.

In 2010 the government introduced a new category, which it confusingly called Affordable Rent.  This aimed to give social landlords a route to maintaining or increasing the amount of lower cost rental while relying less on public funding. It allows them to charge more and have less restrictive tenancies.  Affordable Rent properties can charge up to 80% of the market rate.

It is this sector that has taken off in the past year, increasing the amount of affordable housing, but the amount of Social Rent housing has declined sharply since AR was introduced.  And this is not due to the building of new stock alone. Some Social Rent property is re-classified as Affordable Rent when it becomes vacant.

House building chart 8-2

The last time the delivery of affordable housing was at this level was in 2011-12.  In that year a comparable number of Intermediate Rent properties were made available.  But there were 11,374 Social Rent homes. In 2014-15 that had been reduced to 3,053[9].

All candidates are making pledges about houses but perhaps the voters’ decisions on the housing issue comes down to the answers to 3 simple questions.  How many houses will you build, what sort of homes will they be and where will you build them?

Sources

[1] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/population-change-1939-2015

[2] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/housing-london

[3] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/number-and-density-of-dwellings-by-borough

[4] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/number-and-density-of-dwellings-by-borough

[5] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/population-change-1939-2015

[6] https://www.london.gov.uk/what-we-do/housing-and-land/housing-strategy/mayors-housing-strategy

[7] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/housing-london

[8] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/housing-london

[9] http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/housing-london

This report was produced in association with London Live’s election special programme London Votes

 

 

Sportiest Londoners live in the wealthier south west boroughs

running woman-2People living in south west London are the sportiest in the city with a far higher proportion taking part in regular physical activity.

More than a quarter of the residents of Wandsworth do some form of sporting activity three times per week or more, according to survey data from Sport England.  But across London, in Newham and Barking and Dagenham, it is half that. And in Brent just 12% of people are doing that level of activity.

The south west corner of London has 4 boroughs, apart from Wandsworth, with large proportions of sporty people.  The data for Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea, Richmond and Merton shows about a quarter of people doing 3 sessions per week.

But in Bexley and Greenwich it is just 15%. It’s 14% in Newham and Barking and Dagenham. Across the other side of the city, in the north west, it is 15% in Ealing, 13% in Hillingdon, but with 12% Brent has the lowest rate of people doing regular exercise.

sport particpation map

South west London is generally a more affluent area than other parts of the capital but the reason why people there are more active in sports is not clear. These boroughs also have low levels of obesity, while the proportion of people with severe weight problems is much higher in boroughs such as Hillingdon, Barking and Dagenham and Bexley, as previoulsy reported by Urbs.

The data gathered by Sport England through the Active People Survey also reveals that as a region London has the highest average rate for people doing 3 sessions or more of exercise.

Sport participation regional

The current rate of 18.3% is up from 17.2% 10 years ago.  While this growth has been modest the proportion of people doing no exercise has also seen little change, and remains stubbornly high. Across the capital 52% of the population does no sporting activity.  But in Newham it is 62% and in Barking and Dagenham it is 64%.

For these people, getting off the coach to take part in sport 3 times a week may be a very tall order.  A more modest achievement may be to find a way to get them to join the 38% of Londoners who take part in sport once a week.

Source data

See also

Sporty Londoners prefer solo exercise

Size matters – and it depends where you live

The way we spend our cash – more rent, less alcohol, healthier eating

Health and wealth – an East/West divide when it comes to a flu jab

 

 

85% of children in private school in one area of West London

dad and kids Sending children to private schools has long been a popular choice for parents in West London. But in one small area of Westminster the figures are still surprising. 85% of the children aged 4-11 in Knightsbridge and Belgravia ward are absent from the state school roll and presumed to be in independent schools.

The figures were produced by the GLA in its research on demand for school places.

Knightsbridge and Belgravia ward is a neighbourhood of ultra-expensive residential property to the south of Hyde Park. In contrast there are 114 wards in London, around 18%, that have no children of primary age attending an independent school. Many of these areas are in the less affluent eastern boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham, Havering and Bexley.

The GLA calculates that across London 12.8% of children aged between 4-15 are in independent schools, and this is most prevalent in south west and central London, particularly Westminster, and Kensington and Chelsea.

Data from the Department for Education shows the rate is 10.6% if children 16-18 are taken into account, and the rate has been steady for the past 4 years. Across London 146,000 children are being educated privately.

When mapped at borough level the east/west divide becomes clear, with the exception of the City of London where there is just 1 state primary and 4 independents.

6 boroughs, Wandsworth, Richmond, Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea, Westminster and Camden account for 40% of the children in private education.

Private school uptake map

 

Boroughs on the eastern edge of the capital have little private education. In Barking and Dagenham it is less than 1%, just 115 of the 40,000 school-age children in the borough.

Only the South East matches London for the proportion of children in independent schools. Nationally the rate is 7%. Many parts of London are well below that rate underlining the contrast between rich and poor in the city.

Source data

See also

105,000 extra secondary pupils pose huge challenge for capital’s schools

Fight for reception gets tougher as more kids swell primary school demand

Schools data reveals ethnic mix with fall in proportion of white British pupils

 

 

Motorists pay £235 million in parking fines but number of tickets is falling

stocksolutions shutterstock_127246601-2

Photo: Stocksolutions ┃Shutterstock.com

The number of parking tickets issued in London went down by 6% last year but motorists across the city still forked out £235 million in fines.

There were 3.82 million penalty charge notices stuck on windscreens for on-street parking offences in the financial year 2014/15. In 2006/07 it was over 5 million.

Lambeth and Haringey make the most money from parking tickets. Both boroughs have penalty charge incomes of £18 million, according to their returns to the Department for Communities and Local Government. Their neighbours make a fraction of that, £8 million in Brent and £3 million in Southwark.

Westminster, which has larger traffic flows than Haringey and Lambeth, made £17.6 million from penalty charge notices.

Parking fines map

Motorist may feel that they are hunted by uniformed parking wardens, but the number of tickets issued and the resulting fines has been falling over successive years. Traffic volumes in London are on a downward trend but went up marginally last year due to increases in eastern areas. Traffic volumes in central areas, where the demand for parking is highest, have fallen, as reported by Urbs.

Parking fines income

Parking is big business in London. It generated £582 million for the councils in 2014/15, according to their own figures, analysed by the motoring charity, the RAC Foundation. That’s 40% of all the parking income for the UK, yet London has just 10% of the cars.

Westminster heads the table with £74 million, but its parking income has dropped in the past 12 months along with the other top earners, Kensington and Chelsea and Camden.

Parking total income

After costs are taken out London councils had a surplus of £308 million from parking. By law that money has to be re-invested in transport and environmental projects. Across the UK the surplus from parking represents 15% of the expenditure on local transport.

Source data

See also

London leads the way in declining car use but the East is bucking the trend

Police identify the most ignored red light with 1,500 drivers caught on camera

Where 22,000 cars were stolen in the capital last year

 

Fight for reception gets tougher as more kids swell primary school demand

shutterstock_243207280-1-2

Photo: Oleg Doroshin ┃Shutterstock.com

The contest for a place in a favoured primary school is an annual ritual causing anxiety to parents all over London.   Many schools in neighbourhoods with lots of children have tiny catchment areas of just a few hundred metres radius due to the pressure on reception places.

The bad news is that the situation is going to get worse before its get better. Parents seeking a place in 2016/17 will face the stiffest competition yet, due to simple demographics.

Between 2001/02 and 2011/12 the number of births went up by 28%, an extra 30,000 children. The birth rate peaked in 2011/12 and those children are destined to become the class of 2016/17.

The birth rate has fallen in the past 2 years but forecasting by the GLA Intelligence Unit shows that the 677,000 children attending state primaries in this school year will climb by 60,000 over the coming decade.

The increase in demand for primary school places is focused on East London boroughs that coincide with areas of housing development.

Tower Hamlets is projected to be the borough with the highest growth in demand, rising by nearly 7,000. More than 4,000 extra places are needed in Havering and Newham, nearly that amount in Barking and Dagenham, and 3,500 in Redbridge.

Primary school demand

Kensington and Chelsea is the only borough that is forecast to see a fall in demand.

The GLA emphasises that the increase in demand does not automatically suggest a shortfall in places, as it has not factored in the planned expansion of existing schools or the building of new ones. Many schools have expanded to take on growing numbers but a further 2,000 primary classes will be needed over the next 10 years.

As the numbers begin to taper due to the falling birth rate of the past couple of years the problem will filter through to the secondary schools and, as reported by Urbs, that could mean even greater challenges for education in London.

Source data

See also

105,000 extra secondary pupils pose huge challenge for capital’s schools

How the obesity rate doubled for the class of 2007

Private school? Depends where you live

 

Lowest paid living in Newham as rates remain static across capital

Pay ShaunWilkinson shutterstock_207548536-1-2

Photo: Shaun Wilkinson ┃Shutterstock.com

The lowest paid full time workers in London appear to be living in Newham. Hourly rates of pay for residents of the East London borough are lower than the typical rate for the UK generally at £12.90.

People living in the City of London or the best-paid borough, Westminster, are typically earning in excess of £250 per week more with an hourly rate of pay over £20.

The figures are revealed in the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings from the Office for National Statistics. They are based upon a sample of PAYE tax records and are considered the most reliable guide to pay rates.

Newham is not the only London borough where the median pay rate is below the rate for the UK generally. In Barking and Dagenham the full time hourly rate is £13.31, that’s 5p per hour below the UK median rate.

In contrast, across the river from Newham, the hourly rate in Greenwich is £3 higher.

Hourly pay full time London map

The median rate in Brent is below £14 per hour. In Enfield, Haringey, Waltham Forest, Hounslow and Ealing it is below £15.

Outside the centre, rates are highest in a pocket of South West London. Kensington and Chelsea, Richmond and Wandsworth have rates above £19 per hour. In Hammersmith and Fulham it is above £18.

The ONS uses a median rate or mid point rather than calculating an average, which would be distorted by a small number of very highly paid people. The rates are before tax and do not include overtime.

Rates of pay in London remain higher than the rest of the country. The London-wide median rate for full time employment is £16.16, £1.44 per hour more than the next nearest region, the South East of England, and £4.15 more than the lowest paid region, Northern Ireland.

Hourly rates full time regional

The median rate across the UK moved very little in the past year, rising by just 1.5% but that is 5 times higher than London where the hourly rate rose by just 5p since 2014.

Source data

See also

Over 750,000 jobs pay less than the living wage in the capital

Paying the rent takes up 72% of income for private tenants

105,000 extra secondary pupils pose huge challenge for capital’s schools

Monkey Business Images shutterstock_284502440-1-2

Photo: Monkey Business Images ┃Shutterstock.com

London needs the equivalent of 90 new secondary schools to deal with the growth in pupil numbers over the next decade.

The number of children of secondary school age is projected to rise by 26.5%, and there’ll be an increase of 9% in primary pupils by 2024/25.

The Greater London Authority’s Intelligence Unit made these projections and in the introduction to its report the Deputy Mayor for Education and Culture, Munira Mirza, says: “Meeting the demand for secondary places over the next decade is the foremost educational challenge facing London today.”

The rise in numbers has been driven by an increasing birth rate, up 28% between 2001/02 and 2011/12. The GLA Intelligence Unit also says that there has been a reduction in the number of young families leaving London since the financial crisis of 2008.

This increase in children has already placed pressure on primary schools but it will soon feed into the secondary schools.

Currently there are 394,000 pupils aged 11-15 attending state secondary schools in London. By 2024/25 that number is projected to have grown by 105,000. That’s equivalent to 3,500 secondary school classes.

The GLA’s projections show that the rise in pupils is spread right across the capital. The biggest increase is in Barking and Dagenham with nearly 5,900 additional pupils. Tower Hamlets, Redbridge, Croydon, Brent and Hounslow also see a steep rise in demand. The smallest increase is in Kensington and Chelsea.

Secondary school places

These numbers reflect the increase in demand not a shortfall in school places. A number of pupils might be accommodated through available capacity or new schools or extensions to existing ones that are planned.

However, a projection on the shortfall in places by London Councils (a body that represents the boroughs) reported by Urbs, estimates that 34,000 secondary pupils could be without a school place in the next 5 years alone.

As the GLA report points out, finding a solution will not be quick or easy as building new secondary school takes longer and is more expensive than developing primary schools due to the size and facilities required.

Source data

See also

34,000 pupils could be without a secondary school place in next 5 years

Violence, disruption and drugs – why 20,000 pupils were excluded from school last year

Private school? Depends where you live